Skip to main content

What percentage of your income will you owe as income tax this year?

Understanding income tax can be complex, but we simplify it for you. From pinpointing your tax bracket to maximising deductions, this article lays out what affects your tax rates and how to calculate them. Get ready to crunch your tax numbers with confidence.

Key takeaways

  • Income tax is a necessary governmental revenue sourced from various income streams such as employment, self-employment, pensions, and savings interest; not all income is taxable, with certain earnings like tax-exempt account profits and lottery wins being excluded.
  • The United States uses a progressive tax system where higher income earners pay increased tax rates; for 2023 and 2024, there are seven tax brackets ranging from 10% to 37%, with rates escalating with income.
  • To reduce taxable income, taxpayers can utilise personal allowances and deductions; the UK offers a standard personal allowance of £12,570 for the 2024-2025 tax year, while also providing special allowances and reliefs for certain circumstances like marriage and disability.

Understanding income tax basics

Illustration of a person calculating income tax

Have you ever questioned why we pay income tax? Income tax, imposed on individuals or entities in respect of their income or profits earned, is a primary source of governmental revenue for public services and infrastructure. It’s a necessary contribution that fuels the society we live in, and it’s our responsibility to pay tax.

So, what’s considered taxable income? It’s an amalgamation of different income sources such as:

  • Employment income
  • Self-employment profits
  • State benefits
  • Pensions
  • Rental income
  • Job-related benefits
  • Trust revenue
  • Savings interest over the individual’s allowance

The income tax is calculated by multiplying the tax rate by the taxable income. This method determines the final amount of income tax owed. The rate applied depends on your income level, and not all income is subject to tax. For instance, the following types of income are not taxed:

  • Earnings from tax-exempt accounts like ISAs
  • Dividends within the allowance limit
  • Certain state benefits
  • Lottery wins

A firm grasp of these basics can empower you to manage your tax obligations effectively.

Types of taxable income

Now, you might be thinking, “What constitutes taxable income?” The answer is not as straightforward as it might seem. Taxable income encompasses a broad range of income sources, including:

  • Wages and profits from business activities
  • Rental earnings from properties
  • Pension disbursements
  • Income from savings and investments
  • Dividends
  • Other miscellaneous types of income

In essence, it’s a comprehensive representation of your earnings per capita.

But what if you have international incomes? Yes, they’re subject to tax too! This includes earnings such as:

  • Wages from work done abroad
  • Investment income earned outside your home country
  • Rental income from properties located overseas
  • Pensions received from foreign entities

So, whether you’re earning domestically or internationally, it’s crucial to account for all income sources to ensure accurate tax reporting and avoid penalties.

Tax year and filing deadlines

Understanding the tax year and filing deadlines is crucial in the world of income tax. In the United Kingdom, the tax year begins on January 1st and ends on December 31st. This period is crucial as it defines the timeframe for which your income is assessed for tax purposes.

The UK tax return deadlines depend on the type of tax return being filed. For individuals, the deadline for filing a paper tax return is October 31st of the following tax year. For example, the deadline for filing a paper tax return for the 2020-2021 tax year would be October 31st, 2021.

For those who choose to file their tax returns online, the deadline is extended to January 31st of the following tax year. Using the same example as above, the deadline for filing an online tax return for the 2020-2021 tax year would be January 31st, 2022.

For self-employed individuals or those with more complex tax affairs, such as rental income or capital gains, there is an additional deadline of July 31st in which any outstanding taxes must be paid. This is known as a “payment on account” and is based on your previous year’s earnings.

It is important to note that penalties and interest charges may apply if these deadlines are not met. It is therefore highly recommended to submit your tax returns well before these dates to avoid any potential issues.

In summary, the UK tax return deadlines are:
– October 31st of the following tax year for paper filings
– January 31st of the following tax year for online filings
– July 31st for any outstanding taxes from previous years (for self-employed individuals or those with more complex affairs)

Income tax rates and brackets

Illustration of tax rate brackets

The UK tax system is progressive, which means that individuals and companies are taxed at different rates based on their income or profits. The following are the tax brackets for both individuals and companies.


1. Personal Allowance: This is the amount of income that an individual can earn before they start paying taxes. For the 2023 tax year, the personal allowance is set at £12,570.

2. Basic Rate: The basic rate applies to income between £12,571 and £50,270. Individuals will be taxed at a rate of 20% on this income.

3. Higher Rate: The higher rate applies to income between £50,271 and £150,000. Individuals will be taxed at a rate of 40% on this income.

4. Additional Rate: The additional rate applies to income above £150,000. Individuals will be taxed at a rate of 45% on this income.


1. Small Profits Rate: This applies to companies with profits up to £50,000 and is set at a rate of 19%.

2. Main Rate: Companies with profits between £50,001 and £250,000 will be taxed at the main rate of 19%.

3. Upper Profits Limit: Companies with profits above £250,000 will be subject to a higher marginal rate of corporation tax.

4. Dividend Tax: Companies may also have to pay dividend tax on any dividends distributed to shareholders at a rate of either 7.5%, 32.5%, or 38.1%, depending on their total taxable income.

It’s important to note that these tax brackets may change in future years depending on government policies and economic factors. It’s always best to consult with a financial advisor or check with HM Revenue & Customs for updated information on tax brackets for both individuals and companies in the UK.

Progressive tax system

Let’s delve deeper into the progressive tax system. This system categorises taxpayers into different brackets based on their income levels. The less you earn, the smaller the percentage of your income you pay in taxes. Conversely, higher earners pay progressively higher rates on their income exceeding specified thresholds. The aim is to reduce the financial pressure on lower-income earners by having those with larger incomes contribute a higher percentage of their earnings, aligning tax contributions more closely with taxpayers’ ability to pay.

An individual’s income is taxed at increasing rates as it surpasses certain thresholds, ensuring that only the income above each threshold is subject to the higher rate, not the entire income. While this system is praised for allowing more disposable income among low income and lower-wage earners, which can stimulate the economy, critics argue that it discourages financial success and creates an unfair burden on wealthy and middle-class citizens.

Personal allowances and deductions

Illustration of personal allowance and deductions

But it’s not all about paying taxes. There are ways to reduce your taxable income, and one of these is through personal allowances and deductions. Taxpayers are entitled to a standard personal allowance, which reduces the amount of income that is subject to taxation. This allowance can vary based on factors like your residency status.

There are also various tax reliefs on offer, such as:

  • The Personal Savings Allowance and Savings Rate Band, which allow individuals to earn a certain amount of savings interest tax-free
  • Tax relief on pension contributions
  • Investing in Venture Capital Trusts (VCTs)
  • Using an ISA allowance for investing in stocks and shares

But be aware that the personal allowance is reduced gradually for adjusted net incomes over £100,000, which can increase your tax liability.

And remember, unused portions of the personal allowance cannot be carried over to different tax years, so it’s essential to utilise the full allowance within the year.

Special allowances and reliefs

There are also special allowances and reliefs that some individuals can benefit from. One of these is the Marriage Allowance in the UK. This allowance allows taxpayers to reduce their tax liability by transferring a portion of their Personal Allowance to their spouse or civil partner. To be eligible, one partner must earn below the standard Personal Allowance threshold, while the other is a taxpayer. The transferred portion of the personal allowance directly reduces the recipient partner’s tax liability.

Another special allowance is the Blind Person’s Allowance, which increases a taxpayer’s Personal Allowance and reduces their taxable income. These allowances are part of the government’s commitment to reduce the tax burden on individuals with specific circumstances.

Understanding your tax liability

Illustration of tax liability calculation

Now that we’ve explored the various components of income tax, it’s time to understand your tax liability. But what is tax liability? Simply put, it’s the total amount of tax that you owe. Personal deductions reduce your gross income to arrive at your taxable net income. It’s then this taxable income that’s considered in calculating your tax liability, even after personal allowances are applied.

Your tax liability is based on your taxable income after all deductions and allowances have been accounted for. Understanding your tax liability is crucial as it helps you plan your finances, avoid surprises, and potentially save money.

Estimating taxable income

But how do you estimate your taxable income? The first step is to include all forms of income such as salary, rental income, and earnings from freelance work, and use gross amounts for reporting to tax authorities. You then adjust your taxable income by considering total income less any income-producing expenses, allowable business expenses, and the cost recovery for business assets.

Online services can simplify this process by accounting for:

  • Income Tax
  • National Insurance contributions
  • Pension contributions
  • Student loan repayments

However, ensure that the use of deductions does not reduce your taxable income below the legal minimum wage, with exceptions for specific scenarios like loan repayments and employer-provided accommodations.

Calculating tax owed

Once you’ve estimated your taxable income, how do you calculate the tax you owe? The figure you need is your adjusted net income, which is used to calculate the amount of tax owed after considering various deductions and adjustments.

Your income is then taxed at different rates within progressive tax brackets, where higher levels of income are subject to higher tax rates. To calculate the tax payable, multiply the income within each bracket by its respective tax rate and sum these amounts to find the total tax owed.

Having a clear understanding of this process can help you effectively manage your tax obligations and plan your finances better. However if it’s unclear how much tax is owed,  or you have complicated financial situations, it’s always best to seek the advice of RHJ Accountants. Our team has extensive knowledge and experience in tax laws and can help ensure that your taxes are calculated accurately and efficiently.

Don’t let the stress of tax calculations weigh you down. Let us handle the numbers while you focus on growing your business!

Strategies for reducing your tax bill

Illustration of tax planning strategies

But what if you could reduce your tax bill? Yes, there are strategies for this! Engaging in tax planning at the beginning of the tax year allows individuals to take full advantage of tax allowances. Remember, ‘Use it or lose it’ tax allowances mean that if they aren’t utilized during the tax year, they cannot be carried over to the next year.

Managing tax planning proactively rather than at the end of the tax year helps to ensure that all available allowances are employed, preventing any potential loss. But how exactly can you maximise these allowances and deductions, you ask?

Maximising deductions and credits

One way to reduce your tax bill is by maximising deductions and credits. Taxpayers can choose annually whether to take the standard deduction or itemise deductions, optimising their tax savings based on their qualifying expenses.

The bunching strategy is another effective approach. This strategy enables taxpayers to aggregate deductions into one year to surpass the standard deduction threshold, thereby maximising deduction benefits.

Individuals can also lower their tax burden through various available tax reliefs, provided they meet the necessary requirements. Some common tax reliefs include:

  • Education expenses
  • Medical expenses
  • Charitable donations
  • Retirement contributions

By maintaining a detailed checklist of all allowable deductions, taxpayers can ensure they don’t miss any opportunities to decrease their taxable income.

Tax-efficient investing

Another strategy to reduce your tax bill is through tax-efficient investing. Individual savings accounts (ISAs) offer tax-exempt benefits for interest and dividends, serving as a government incentive to stimulate saving.

These accounts allow your money to grow tax-free, and you won’t pay any tax when you withdraw money from your ISA. You can use your ISA to save cash, invest in stocks and shares, or a combination of both. It’s a fantastic way to grow your wealth while minimising your tax liability.

Incorporating abroad

How about instead you look at setting up a company abroad,  in a country with lower tax rates? By doing so, you could potentially decrease your corporation tax bill and increase your profits. However, this strategy requires careful planning and consideration of the legal and financial implications.

Our team can assist in various countries; from the United Arab Emirates, Malta, Cyprus or Portugal , we can help you set up your company and navigate the complexities of international tax laws. We understand that each business is unique and has different goals, so we will work closely with you to create a tailored plan that fits your specific needs.

Aside from potentially decreasing your tax liability, incorporating abroad also offers other benefits such as accessing new markets and diversifying your business operations. It can also enhance your credibility and reputation as an international company.

International income tax considerations

But what about those with international income? There are unique considerations for them. Jurisdictions typically either do not tax income earned outside their borders or provide a credit for taxes paid to other countries on such income to avoid double taxation.

Understanding these international income tax considerations is crucial, especially for those working abroad or having investment income from overseas. So, how do you navigate the complexities of international taxation?

Double taxation agreements

One of the key tools to prevent double taxation is through Double Taxation Agreements (DTAs). These agreements specify which country has the rights to tax particular types of income, based on where the income is earned and where the taxpayer is a resident.

To alleviate double taxation, if a taxpayer pays taxes on income in the country where the income is earned, their country of residence will typically provide tax relief for those taxes paid. The UK, for example, has established an extensive network of DTAs with different countries, each with specific provisions that correspond to the unique economic relationship between the UK and the other country.

Tax residency and non-residency

Another critical aspect of international taxation is the concepts of tax residency and non-residency. The UK defines tax residency using the Statutory Residence Test (SRT), considering factors such as days spent in the country and connections to the UK. While tax residency is assessed annually based on where someone lives, domicile is a more permanent concept reflecting a person’s long-term home.

Tax residency and domicile status have significant implications on tax responsibilities, especially concerning foreign income and capital gains. Double taxation agreements are in place to prevent the same income from being taxed twice, which is crucial for tax residents with overseas income.

Understanding these aspects can help you navigate the intricacies of international taxation and avoid potential pitfalls.


Navigating the world of income tax may seem daunting, but with a solid understanding of the basics, it becomes much more manageable. We’ve explored the different types of taxable income, tax rates and brackets, personal allowances and deductions, and strategies for reducing your tax bill. We’ve also delved into international income tax considerations and the role of double taxation agreements.

So, armed with this knowledge, you’re now better equipped to understand your tax obligations, plan for tax season, and potentially reduce your tax bill. Remember, understanding income tax is not just about fulfilling a legal obligation; it’s about taking control of your financial future.

If you liked this article leave a comment or reply here

💬 PSA: between April & June our Portuguese team have limited meeting availability due to the Tax Return Submission Period 🇵🇹